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Sheohar – District Profile

Sheohar District is situated in the state of Bihar, India. It is a part of the Tirhut division bordered by the districts of Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur, East Champaran, and Sitamarhi. The district is known for its agricultural landscape and is home to the Bagmati and Budhi Gandak rivers.

History & Demographics

Sheohar District was established on October 6, 1994, after being separated from the Sitamarhi district. It is the smallest district in Bihar and the second least populous after Sheikhpura. The district has a rich history tied to its agricultural roots and is known for cultivating crops like paddy, wheat, maize, and pulses.

The population of Sheohar District is 6,56,916, with a population density of 1500 per square kilometer. The district has seen a population growth rate of 27.33% and has a sex ratio of 890 females per 1000 males. The primary languages spoken in the district are Maithili, Hindi, and Urdu.

District Administration

  • District Headquarters: Sheohar
  • Sub-Division: Sheohar
  • Blocks: Sheohar, Tariyani, Piprahi, Dumri-katsari, Purnahiya
  • Gram Panchayats: 53
  • Villages: 207

Area & Population

  • Total Area: 443 square kilometers
  • Population: 6,56,916
  • Population Density: 1500 per square kilometer

Geography & Climate


  • Sheohar district is situated in the North Bihar plains, characterized by a flat and fertile landscape.
  • The district does not have any hills or mountains.
  • The Bagmati River forms a natural boundary along the western border of Sheohar.

Flora & Fauna

  • Sheohar’s fertile plains support a variety of plant life. Common trees include cadamba and teak.
  • Specific information on fauna is limited, but the district may be home to animals like nilgai (blue bull), which is considered the regional animal.


Sheohar experiences a tropical monsoon climate, typical of most of Bihar. This climate is characterized by distinct seasons:

  • Summer (March to May): Hot and dry, with average temperatures exceeding 30°C (86°F).
  • Monsoon (June to September): The wet season brings significant rainfall, crucial for agriculture.
  • Winter (December to February): Pleasant and mild, with average temperatures ranging from 15°C to 25°C (59°F to 77°F).

Rainfall Patterns

  • Most of Sheohar’s annual rainfall occurs during the monsoon season.
  • Winters experience very little precipitation.

Economy & Industries

The district is primarily agricultural, with crops like paddy, wheat, maize, and pulses being the mainstay of the local economy. Sheohar District is home to 315 registered industrial units, with a focus on industries like agro-based, wood & wooden-based furniture, mineral-based, metal-based, electrical machinery & transport equipment, repairing & servicing, ready-made garments, and chemical/chemical-based industries.

Currently, there are no industrial areas in the Sheohar District. Still, there is significant potential for the development of service industries like agro-based products, water treatment plants, readymade garments, restaurants, and transportation services.

Micro & Small Enterprises

  • Existing Units: The district hosts 315 micro and small enterprises and artisan units, with investments totaling Rs. 653 lakh. These units are involved in various industries such as agro-based, ready-made garments, wood/wooden-based furniture, leather-based, chemical/chemical-based, mineral-based, metal-based, electrical machinery, and transport equipment, among others.
  • Employment: On average, around 6 daily workers are employed in small-scale industries in Sheohar District.


  • Health & Education: Sheohar District boasts 139 hospitals and health centers, 25 commercial banks and financial institutions, and a range of educational institutions, including 314 primary schools, 93 middle schools, 12 secondary and senior secondary schools, and 1 college.
  • Transportation: The district is well-connected by railways, with the nearest railway station being Sitamarhi. Sheohar is linked directly to Muzaffarpur, Patna, and Sitamarhi through roads, with NH 104 passing through the district. The nearest airport is located in Patna.

Potential for Growth

Sheohar District presents opportunities for the establishment of agro-based industries, tourism ventures, and service industries like transportation, hotels, and restaurants. Despite the absence of large-scale industries or public sector undertakings, the district’s agricultural focus and potential for service industry development.

Culture & Places of Interest

  • Languages: Hindi is the primary language spoken in Sheohar. Magahi, a regional dialect, is also prevalent.
  • Festivals: Major Hindu festivals like Chhath Puja, Durga Puja, and Holi are vibrant celebrations. Dussehra, marking the victory of good over evil, is observed with enthusiasm. Muslims celebrate Eid and Muharram with devotion.
  • Unique Aspects: One interesting cultural aspect to explore is the harmonious co-existence of religious communities. For example, the Garhi Mai temple and a mosque stand side-by-side in the district headquarters, symbolizing religious tolerance.

Places of Interest

While Sheohar may be a smaller district, it offers historical and religious significance:

  • Historical Sites: Excavations near (paschim) Sheohar village have unearthed artifacts suggesting a settlement dating back to the Mauryan Empire (3rd century BCE).
  • Religious Sites: The Dekuli Dham Mandir, dedicated to Lord Shiva, attracts devotees during the holy month of Shraavana. The ancient Bhubneshwar Temple near the Bagmati River is another significant pilgrimage site.


When was the Sheohar District established?

Sheohar District came into existence in 1994 after being separated from the Sitamarhi district.

What are the main rivers in Sheohar District?

The main rivers flowing through Sheohar District are the Bagmati and Budhi Gandak.

What is the predominant economic activity in Sheohar District?

Sheohar District is predominantly an agricultural district, with crops like paddy, wheat, maize, and pulses being the main agricultural products.

How many industrial units are registered in the Sheohar District?

There are 315 registered industrial units in Sheohar District, focusing on industries like agro-based, wood & wooden-based furniture, mineral-based, metal-based, electrical machinery & transport equipment, and more.

Are there any large-scale industries or public sector undertakings in the Sheohar District?

No, there are no large-scale industries or public sector undertakings present in Sheohar District, highlighting the district’s focus on agriculture and potential for service industry development.

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